Class 6 Civics Chapter 8

Rural Livelihoods 

1. You have probably noticed that people in Kalpattu are engaged in a variety of non-farm work. List five of these. Answer
Five non-farm work of people in Kalpattu village:
(i) Making baskets, utensils, pots, bricks, bullock-carts etc.
(ii) Blacksmiths
(iii) Nursing
(iv) Teaching
(v) Shop-keeping
(vi) Trading

2. List the different types of people you read about in Kalpattu who depend on farming. 
Who is the poorest among them and why?

Answer
Different types of people who depend on farming are:
(i) Big landowner
(ii) Small landowners or Farmers
(iii) Landless farmers or Labourers
Landless farmers or labourers are the poorest among them because they have seasonal earning.
They always have to look for work at other places after harvesting period is over and also paid very less. They do not have fix income and sometimes they went without work. Hence, in the chapter Thulasi is the poorest.

3. Imagine you are a member of a fishing family and you are discussing whether to take a loan from the bank for an engine. What would you say?

Answer
If i were a member of a fishing family then i must have taken loan from the bank for an engine to improve and to invest in the growth of the business. The engine is very costly and bank is a trusted institution from where we can borrow money. They have fixed terms and rates. They will not ask for shares in our profit and are reliable. Moreover, buying an engine will increase the income.

4. Poor rural labourers like Thulasi often do not have access to good medical facilities, good schools, and other resources. You have read about inequality in the first unit of this text. The difference between her and Ramalingam is one of inequality. Do you think this is a fair situation? What do you think can be done? Discuss in class.

Answer
The situation is not fair in aspects of constitution of India. The constitution grants every person to be equal in terms of the provision of the facility. However, to be access to good medical facilities, good schools, and other resources there are many factors which can be responsible. A person might have worked very hard and earned money to provide himself good facilities rather than the others. But, it is also the duty of the government to ensure atleast the good basic facilities to every citizen of the country irrespective of their income. The government can provide them loan for work, farming land, low cost fertilisers and seeds, setting up hospitals etc. to help them.

5. What do you think the government can do to help farmers like Sekar when they get into debt? Discuss.

Answer
The government can do following things to help farmers like Sekar when they get into debt:
(i) Provision of easy farming loans from the banks at low rate of interest.
(ii) Insurance of their cultivation.
(iii) Provision of subsidised fertilizers, pesticides and HYV seeds.
(iv) Farming schools and help should be provided at no cost.

6. Compare the situation of Sekar and Ramalingam by filling out the following table:

SEKAR - RAMALINGAM

Land cultivated
Labour required
Loans required
Selling of harvest
Other work done by them

Answer

SEKAR RAMALINGAM

Land cultivated
About 2 acres
About 20 acres

Labour required
Not required. They get help from the other farmers during the time of harvesting.
Required in large numbers. They have much land and thus need many labourers to cultivate it.

Loans required 
Yes. For fertilisers and seeds.
Not required for harvest. However, they need loan to set up rice mills.

Selling of harvest 
Sell harvest at low cost to the lender.
Sell harvest at market price to the traders or directly in the market.

Other work done by them
Work as labour in Ramalingham's rice mill.
Owns rice mills and have several shops.

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