Class 7 History Chapter 5 Rulers and Buildings

NCERT Solutions for Class 7 History Chapter 5 Rulers and Buildings.

1. How is the "trabeate" principle of architecture different from the "arcuate"?
Answer
(i) In trabeate style of architecture roofs, doors and windows were made by placing a horizontal beam
across two vertical columns while in arcuate style of architecture the weight of the superstructure above the doors and windows was carried by arches.
(ii) Trabeate style of architecture were between the seventh and tenth centuries while arcuate style of
architecture were noticeable from the twelfth century.

2. What is a shikhara?
Answer
Shikhar is the highest roof of the Hindus temples.

3. What is pietra-dura?
Answer
Pietra-dura is an architectural style in which coloured, hard stones placed in depressions carved into
marble or sandstone creating beautiful, ornate patterns.

4. What are the elements of a Mughal chahar bagh garden?
Answer
The elements of a Mughal chahar bagh garden are rectangular walled enclosures and divided into four quarters by artificial channels.

5. How did a temple communicate the importance of a king?
Answer
(i) Temple communicate the importance of a king as they were meant to demonstrate the power,
wealth and devotion of the patron.
(ii) It help the king to appear like a god as the king took the god’s name because it was auspicious.
(iii) It also gives a chance to the king to proclaim their close relationships with god.
(iv) The temple was a miniature model of the world ruled by the king and his allies.
(v) They worshiped their deities together in the royal temples, it seemed as if they brought the just rule of the gods on earth.

6. An inscription in Shah Jahan’s diwan-i khas in Delhi stated: "If there is Paradise on Earth, it is here, " How was this image created?
Answer
(i) During Shah Jahan's reign, the different elements of Mughal architecture were fused together in a
grand harmonious synthesis.
(ii) Shah Jahan’s audience halls were specially constructed to resemble a mosque.
(iii) The pedestal on which his throne was placed was frequently described as the qibla which means the direction of Muslims pray as everybody faced that direction when court was in session.
(iv) The idea of the king as a representative of God on earth was suggested by these architectural
features. Therefore by the means of architecture style, this image was created.

7. How did the Mughal court suggest that everyone – the rich and the poor, the powerful and the weak – received justice equally from the emperor?
Answer
The Mughal court suggest that everyone – the rich and the poor, the powerful and the weak – received justice equally from the emperor:
(i) By architectural features which highlight the idea of the king as a representative of God on earth.
(ii) The connection between royal justice and the imperial court was emphasised by Shah Jahan in his
newly constructed court in the Red Fort at Delhi.
(iii) There were a series of pietra dura inlays behind the emperor's throne which depicted that legendary Greek god Orpheus playing the lute.
(iv) The construction of audience hall aimed to communicate that the king's justice would treat the high and the low as equals creating a world where all could live together in harmony.

8. What role did the Yamuna play in the layout of the new Mughal city at Shahjahanabad?
Answer
Role of Yamuna in the layout of the new Mughal city at Shahjahanabad:
(i) The imperial palace commanded the front of river Yamuna in the new city of Shahjahanabad in Delhi.
(ii) Only specially favoured nobles were given access to the river.
(iii) All others had to construct their homes in the city away from the River Yamuna.
(iv) The access to the river Yamuna to the nobles were controlled by developing architectural form.
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