Class 7 History Chapter 8 Devotional Paths to the Divine

NCERT Solutions for Class 7 History Chapter 8 Devotional Paths to the Divine.

1. Match the following:
The Buddha - namghar
Shankaradeva - worship of Vishnu
Nizamuddin Auliya - questioned social differences
Nayanars - Sufi saint
Alvars - worship of Shiva
Answer
The Buddha - questioned social differences
Shankaradeva - namghar
Nizamuddin Auliya -Sufi saint
Nayanars - worship of Shiva
Alvars - worship of Vishnu

2. Fill in the blanks:
(a) Shankara was an advocate of _____________ .
(b) Ramanuja was influenced by the ______________ .
(c) _____________ , ______________ and _____________ were advocates of Virashaivism.
(d) ________________ was an important centre of the Bhakti tradition in Maharashtra.
Answer
(a) Shankara was an advocate of advaita.
(b) Ramanuja was influenced by the Alvars.
(c) Basavanna, Allama Prabhu and Akkamahadevi were advocates of Virashaivism.
(d) Pandharpur was an important centre of the Bhakti tradition in Maharashtra.

3. Describe the beliefs and practices of the Nathpanthis, Siddhas and Yogis.
Answer
Beliefs and practices of the Nathpanthis, Siddhas and Yogis:
(i) They believed in logical arguments.
(ii) They criticised the rituals and other aspects of conventional religion and the social order.
(iii) They believed that the path to salvation lay in meditation on the formless Ultimate Reality
and the realisation of oneness with it.
(iv) They advocated intense training of the mind and body through practices like yogasanas,
breathing exercises and meditation.

4. What were the major ideas expressed by Kabir? How did he express these?
Answer
The major ideas expressed by Kabir:
(i) His teachings were based on a complete, indeed vehement, rejection of the major religious
traditions.
(ii) He openly ridiculed all forms of external worship of both Brahmanical Hinduism and Islam.
(iii) He believed in a formless Supreme God.
(iv) He preached that the only path to salvation was through bhakti or devotion.
He expressed these by the language of his poetry. It was was a form of spoken Hindi widely
understood by ordinary people. There was also a vast collection of verses called sakhis and pads
by him.

5. What were the major beliefs and practices of the Sufis?
Answer
Major beliefs and practices of the Sufis:
(i) They rejected outward religiosity and emphasised love and devotion to God.
(ii) They also emphasized compassion towards all fellow human beings.
(iii) They rejected idol worship and simplified rituals of worship into collective prayers.
(iv) They believed in monotheism or submission to one God.
(v) They rejected the elaborate rituals and codes of behaviour demanded by Muslim religious
scholars.
6. Why do you think many teachers rejected prevalent religious beliefs and practices?
Answer
(i) Many teachers rejected prevalent religious beliefs and practices because it created differences
in the society.
(ii) Those teachings favoured the upper caste people and lower caste people suffered.
(iii) The idea that all human beings are not equal were prevailing in the society and must be
abolished.
(iv) They believed in equality of God and want to break the evils of the society.
(v) Bondage can be broken if approached God with devotion.

7. What were the major teachings of Baba Guru Nanak?
Answer
Major teachings of Baba Guru Nanak:
(i) He emphasized the importance of the worship of one God.
(ii) He insisted that caste, creed or gender was irrelevant for attaining liberation.
(iii) The idea of liberation was not that of a state of inert bliss but rather the pursuit of active life
with a strong sense of social commitment.
(iv) He used the terms nam, dan and isnan for the essence of his teaching, which actually meant
right worship, welfare of others and purity of conduct.
(v) He underlined the importance of right belief and worship, honest living, and helping others.

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