Class 10 Civics Chapter 3 Democracy and Diversity

NCERT Solutions For Class 10 Civics Chapter 3 Democracy and Diversity

 Question 1.

Discuss three factors that determine the outcomes of politics of social divisions?
Answer:
Three factors are crucial in deciding the outcomes of politics of social divisions.
1) First of all the outcome depends on how people perceive their identities. If people see their identities in singular and exclusive terms, it becomes very difficult to accommodate. As long as people in Ireland saw themselves as only catholic or protestant, their differences were difficult to reconcile. It is much easier if the people see that their identities are multiple and are complementary with the national identity. A majority of Belgians now feel that they are as much Belgian as they are Dutch or German-speaking. This helps them to stay together. This is now most people in our country see their identity: they think of themselves as Indian as well as belonging to a state or a language group or a social or religious community.

2) Second, it depends on how political leaders raise the demands of any community. It is easier to accommodate demands that are within the constitutional framework and are not at the most of another community. The demand for ‘only Sinhala’ was at the cost of the interest and identity of the Tamil community in Sri Lanka. In Yugoslavia, the leaders of different ethnic communities presented their demands in such a way that these could not be accommodated within a single country.

3) Third, it depends on the how the government reacts to demands of different groups. As we saw examples of Belgium and Sri Lanka, if the rulers are willing to share power and accommodate the reasonable demands of minority community, social divisions become less threatening for the country. But if they try to suppress such a demand in the name of national unity, the end result is often quite the opposite. Such attempts at forced integration often sow the seeds of integration.

Question 2.
When does a social difference become a social division.
Answer:

  1. Social division takes place when some social differences Overlaps with many others differences.
  2. The Differences between the White and Black becomes a social division in the US because the blacks tend to be poor, homeless and discriminated against.
  3. In our country Dalits tends to be poor and landless. They often face discrimination and injustice.
  4. Situations of this kind produce social divisions when one kind of social difference become more important than Any other and people start feeling that they belong to different communities.

Question 3.
How do social division affect politics? Give two examples.
Answer:
1) Democracy involves competition among various political parties. Their competition tends to divide any society. If they start competing in terms of some existing social divisions into political divisions and lead into conflict, violence, and even disintegration of a country. The case of Northern Ireland and disintegration of Yugoslavia are the case in sight. Hundred of civilians, militants, and security forces were killed in the fight between Unionist and Nationalist and between the security forces of UK and the Nationalists of Northern Ireland. In Yugoslavia, political competition along religious and ethnic lines led to the disintegration of Yugoslavia into six independent countries.

2) Every expression of social divisions in politics does not lead to disasters always. In a democracy, it is only natural that political parties would talk about these divisions, make different promises to different communities, look after due representation of various communities and make policies to redress the grievances of the disadvantaged communities. Social division dp affect voting in most countries. People from one community support some particular party more than others. In many countries there are parties that focus only on one community. Yet all this does not lead to disintegration of the country.

Question 4.
…………… Social differences create possibilities of deep social divisions and tensions. …………. social differences do not usually lead to conflicts.
Answer:
Overlapping, Cross cutting

Question 5.
In dealing with social divisions which one of the following statements is NOT correct about democracy?
(a) Due to political competition in a democracy, social divisions get reflected in politics.
(b) In a democracy it is possible for communities to voice their grievances in a peaceful manner.
(c) Democracy is the best way to accommodate social diversity.
(d) Democracy always leads to disintegration of society on the basis of social divisions.
Answer:
(d) Democracy always leads to disintegration of society on the basis of social divisions.

Question 6.
Consider the following three statements.
(A) Social divisions take place when social differences overlap.
(B) It is possible that the person can have multiple identities.
(C) Social divisions exist in only big countries like India.
Which of the statements is/ are correct?
(a) A, B, and C
(b) A and B
(c) B and C
(d) Only C
Answer:
(b) A and B

Question 7.
Arrange the following statements in a logical sequence and select the right answers from using the code given below.
(A) But all political expression of social divisions need not be always dangerous.
(B) Social divisions of one kind on the other exist in most countries.
(C) Parties try to win political support by appealing to social divisions.
(D) Some social differences may result in social divisions.
(a) D, B, C, A
(b) D, B, A, C
(c) D, A, C, B
(d) A, B, C, D
Answer:
(a) D, B, C, A

Question 8.
Among the following which country suffered disintegration due to political flights on the basis of religious and ethnic identities.
(a) Belgium
(b) India
(c) Yugoslavia
(d) Netherlands
Answer:
(c) Yugoslavia

Question 9.
Read the following Passage from a famous speech by Martin Luther King Jr in 1963. Which social division is he talking about? What are his aspirations and anxieties? Do you see a relationship between the speech and the incident in Mexico Olympic mentioned in this chapter? ” I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the colour of their skin but by the content of their character. Let freedom ring. And when this happens, and when we allow freedom ring-when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up drat day when all of God’s children black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics- will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual: “free at last!
Answer:
In this speech, Martin Luther King Jr. is talking about the policy of social discrimination practiced by the government of the USA.

He aspires for the country where everyone would be treated as equals and everybody would be able to move with head held high. He wishes freedom for everyone.

There is a certain relationship between this speech and incident of Mexico Olympics. Both of them tried to draw international attention to social discrimination in the United States. At the same time, both were responding to social divisions and social inequalities.

NCERT Solutions