Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Minerals and Energy Resources

NCERT Solutions For Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Minerals and Energy Resources

 1. Multiple choice questions.

1. Which one of the following minerals is formed by decomposition of rocks, leaving a residual mass of weathered material?
(a) coal
(b) bauxite
(c) gold
(d) zinc
(i) a

2. Koderma, in Jharkhand is the leading producer of which one of the following minerals?
(a) bauxite
(b) mica
(c) iron ore
(d) copper
(b) mica

3. Minerals are deposited and accumulated inthestratas of which of the following rocks?
(a) sedimentary rocks
(b) igneous rocks
(c) metamorphic rocks
(d) none of the above
(b) igneous rocks

4. Which one of the following minerals is contained in the Monazite sand?
(a) oil
(b) uranium
(c) thorium
(d) coal
(c) thorium

2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

Question 1.
Distinguish between the following:
(a) ferrous and non-ferrous minerals
(b) conventional and non-conventional sources of energy.
(a) Ferrous minerals contain iron where as non-ferrous minerals do not contain iron. Ferrous minerals, relatively, make a strong base for the metallurgical industries, though non-ferrous minerals too play a vital role in the industries, though non-ferrous minerals too play a vital role in the development of industries. Ferrous minerals example-iron ore, manganese, nickel, cobalt etc.

Non-ferrous minerals, example-copper, lead, tin, bauxite etc.

(b) Conventional sources of energy are coal, petroleum, gas, in a way exhaustible sources of energy; non-conventional sources of energy are solar, tidal, water, wind sources, usually in abundance and inexhaustible.

Question 2.
What is a mineral?
A mineral is a homogenous substance with a definable internal structure. It is found in varied forms in nature.

Question 3.
How are minerals formed in igneous and metamorphic rocks?
In igneous and metamorphic rocks, minerals may occur in the cracks, crevices, faults or joints. The smaller occurence are called veins and the larger lodes. In most cases, they are formed when minerals in liquid/molten and gaseous forms are forced upward through cavities towards the earth’s surface. They cool and solidify as they rise. Major metallic minerals, like tin, copper, zinc and lead etc. are obtained from veins and lodes.

Question 3.
Why do we need to conserve mineral resources?
Minerals resources constitute the wealth of a nation. As they are in less quantity and are short-lived, we need to conserve these minerals. We have to extract these minerals continuously. Recycling of metals, using scrap metals and other substitutes can help us conserve mineral resources.

3. Answer the following questions in about 120 words.

Question 1.
Describe the distribution of coal in India.
In India coal occurs in rock series of two main geological ages, namely Gondwana, a little over 200 million years in age and in tertiary deposits which are only about 55 million years old. The major resources of Gondwana coal, which are metallurgical coal, are located in Damodar Valley (West Bengal Jharkhand). Jharia, Raniganj, and Bokaro are important coal fields. The Godawari, Mahanadi, Son and Wardha valleys also contain coal deposits.

Tertiary coal occurs in the north-eastern states of Meghalaya, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland. Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Orissa produce 67 per cent of total coal. Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh account for 30 per cent of total coal production.

Question 2.
Why do you think that solar energy has a bright future in India?
Solar energy is a renewable source of energy unlike coal and petroleum. It has a bright future in India because of the following reasons:

(a) India being a tropical country has enough scope for production and utilisation of solar energy.
(b) It is pollution free and ecofriendly. It can be used for sustainable development.
(c) In rural areas, it is used for cooking, heating of water, lighting of homes and streets, etc. Hence, is becoming popular there.
(d) It will minimise the dependence of rural households on firewood and dung cakes, which in turn will contribute to environmental conservation and adequate supply of manure in agriculture.


Fill the name of the correct mineral in the crossword below:
NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 5 Minerals and Energy Resources
1. A ferrous mineral (9)
2. Raw material for cement industry (9)
3. Finest iron ore with magnetic properties (9)
4. Highest quality hard coal (10)
5. Aluminium is obtained from this ore (7)
6. Khetri mines are famous for this mineral (6)
7. Formed due to evaporation (6)

1. Found in placer deposit (14)
2. Iron ore mined in Bailadila (8)
3. Indispensable for electrical industry (4)
4. Geological Age of coal found in north east India (8)
5. Formed in veins and lodes (3)

5. TIN

NCERT Solutions