Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Manufacturing Industries

NCERT Solutions For Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Manufacturing Industries

 1. Multiple choice questions:

1. Which one of the following industries uses limestone as a raw material:
(a) Aluminium
(b) Cement
(c) Sugar
(d) Jute
(b) Cement

2. Which one of the following agencies markets steel for the public sector plants?
(a) HAL
(b) SAIL
(d) MNCC
(b) SAIL

3. Which of the following industry uses bauxite as a raw material?
(a) Aluminium
(b) Cement
(c) Jute
(d) Steel.
(a) Aluminium

4. Which one of the following industries manufactures telephones, computer, etc.
(a) Steel
(b) Aluminium
(c) Electronic
(d) Information Technology.
(a) Steel

2. Answer the following briefly in not more than 30 words:

i) What is manufacturing?
ii) Name any three physical factors for the location of the industry.
iii) Name any three human factors for the location of an industry.
iv)What are the basic industries? Give an example.
v) Name the important raw-materials used in manufacturing of cement.
(i) Production of goods in large quantities after processing from raw-materials to more valuable products is called manufacturing.

(ii) The three physical factors that affect location of industries are the following:
(a) Availability of raw-materials, (ii) Availability of labour, (iii) Climate.

(iii) The three human inputs that control location of industries are the following:
(i) Available labour force.
(ii) Capital and transport facilities.
(iii) Government policies.

(iv) Basic industries are those industries which supply their products (raw-materials) to manufacture other goods: Example: Iron-steel Industry

(v) The important raw-materials used in manufacturing of cement are limestone, silica, aluminia and gypsum.

3. Write the answers of the following questions in 120 words.

(i) How are integrated steel plants different from mini steel plants? What problems does the industry face? What recent developments have led to a rise in the production capacity?
(i) An integrated steel plant is large. It handles everything in one complex from putting together raw material to steel making rolling and shaping. The mini steel plants are smaller; they have elastic furnaces; they use steel scrap and sponge iron. They have re-rollers that use steel ingots as well. They produce mild and alloy steel of given specification.

The problem faced by this industry include:
(a) high costs of cooking coal, (b) limited availability of coking coal, (c) low productivity of labour, (d) irregular supply of energy, (e) poor infrastructure.
Liberalisation and foreign direct investment (FDI) have led to the rise in the production capacity.

(ii) How do industries pollute the environment?
Industries mainly create four types of pollution which in turn degrade the environment. These are (a) Air, (b) Water, (c) Land, (d) Noise.

Air pollution:
1. The smoke emitted by the industries pollute air and water very badly.
2. This pollution is caused by the presence of a higher proportion of undesirable gases, such as carbon monoxide and sulphur dioxide.
3. Dust, fume, mist, spray and smoke released from the industries contain both types of particles: (a) solid, (b) Liquid.
4. This pollution is very harmful for human health, as well as for animals, plants, materials and for the atmosphere.

Water pollution:
1. Sources for this pollution are numerous. However its main source is the organic and inorganic discharge from the industries.
2. The principal industries creating water pollution are paper, pulp, textiles, chemicals, petroleum, refining tannery and electroplating.

Land pollution:
Land and soils is polluted by the industrial wastes containing toxic metals.

Noise pollution:
Land and soil is polluted by the industrial wastes containing toxic metals.

Noise pollution:
1. It is very harmful, it causes impairment of hearing as well as many other physiological and psychological problems.
2. Industrial noise, particularly from mechanical saws and penumatic drills cause unbearable sound.

Despite of all its harmful effects, industrial work can’t be stopped. On the other hand much of the pollution can be prevented be carefully planning and siting of industries, better design equipment and better operation of the equipment.

(iii) Discuss the steps to be taken to minimise environmental degradation by industry.
The following steps can be taken to minimise environmental degradation by the industry:
(i) minimising use water for processing by reusing and recycling it in two or more successive stages.
(ii) harvesting of rainwater to meet water requirements.
(iii) treating hot water and effluents before releasing them in rivers and ponds. Treatment of industrial effluents can be done in three phases.
(a) Primary treatment by mechanical means. This involves screening, grinding, flocculation and sedimentation.
(b) Secondary treatment by biological process.
(c) Territary treatment by biological, chemical and physical processes.


Give one word for each of the following with regard to industry. The number of letters in each word are hinted in brackets.

1. Using to drive machinery5. Pumps
2. People who work in a factory6. Worker
3. Where the product is sold6. Market
4. A person who sells goods8. Retailer
5. Thing produced7. Product
6. Middlemen10. Wholesaler
7. To make to produce11. Manufacture
8. Land, water and air degarded9. Pollution

Solve the puzzle by following you search horizontally and diagonally to find the hidden answers.
NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 6 Manufacturing Industries

1. Textiles, Sugar, Vegetable oil and plantation industries deriving raw-materials from agriculture are called as…Agro based,
2. The basic raw-materials for sugar industry. Sugarcane.
3. This fibre is also known as ‘Golden Fibre’. Jute
4. Iron-ore, Coking coal, and Limestone are the chief raw materials of this industry: Steel.
5. A public sector steel plant located in Chhattisgarh. Bhilai
6. Railway diesel engines are manufactured in Uttai Piadesh at this piace. Varanasi
Hints: Some of them are being market. Others, students may do with the help of the teachers.

Answers the following with regard to cotton-textile industry:
(i) Which three states have the largest number of mills?
(ii) What could be the reason for locating the industry in these states?
(iii) Name three large centres for each of these three states.
(i) Maharashtra, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh.
(ii) Availability of raw cotton and markets.
(iii) Maharashtra: Mumbai, Pune, Wardha.
Gujarat: Ahmedabad, Vadodara, Surat.
Uttar Pradesh: Moradabad, Kanpur, Agra.

NCERT Solutions