Class 10 History Chapter 1 The Rise of Nationalism in Europe

NCERT Solutions For Class 10 History Chapter 1 The Rise of Nationalism in Europe

 Question 1.

Write a note on
(a) Giuseppe Mazzini
(b) Count Camillo de Cavour
(c) The Greek war of independence
(d) Frankfurt Parliament
(e) Role of women in nationalist struggles
Answer:
(a) Giuseppe Mazzini (1805 -1872) was an Italian partriot, philosophpr and politiction. Mazzini’s efforts helped bring about the modem Italian state in place of the several separate states, many dominated by foreign powers, that existed until the 9th century. He also helped define the modern European movement for popular Democracy in a Republican State.

(b) Count Camillo de Cavour: Cavour (kah -voor’), Camillo, count di. Eminent Italian statesman. Born in 1810. In 1847, he took an active part in the promulgation of the liberal doctrines then agitating his country, and largely assisted in the establishment of the constitution granted by King Charles Albert in 1848. In 1850 he became minister of commerce, and minister of finances the following year.

In 1852 he succeeded D’Azeglio as first minister, secured the liberty of the press, favoured religious toleration and free trade, and during his seven year’s tenure of office brought about the regeneration of Italy by the Treaty of Villafranca in 1859. Died in 1861.

(c) The Greek War of Independence: In 1821, the Greeks, after nearly 400 years of slavery under the ottomans decide to take up the arms and fight for their freedom. The 25th March 1821 marks the beginning of the Greek revolution and the 22nd March 1829 the day of the creation of the modern Greek state. Some of the key figures of that revolt are Theodoros Kolokotronis (1770- 1834), Georgios Karaiskakis (1782 – 1827),, Constantinos Kanaris (1793- 1877).

(d) Frankfurt Parliament: The Frankfurt Parliament is the name of the German National Assembly founded during the Revolutions of 1848 that tried to unite Germany in a democratic way. Meeting in the city of Frankfurt am Main, the assembly was attended by 386 deputies. The members of the Frankfurt Parliament convened in the St. Paul’s Church, Frankfurt on May 18, 1848, when the Prussian king, Friedrich Wilhelm IV, influenced by the 1848 revolutions, gave support to a National Assembly to discuss German unification.

(e) Role of Women in Nationalist Struggles: The women played a significant role in the nationalist struggles in France, Prussia, Italy, Austria and Hungary. They fought for their rights as well, especially in demanding franchise rights. Women had, in fact, formed their own political associations, founded newspapers and had taken part in political meetings and demonstrations.

Question 2.
What steps did the French revolutionaries take to create a sense of collective identity among the French people?
Answer:
The French revolutionaries took numerous, steps so to create a sense of collective identity among the French people. Some of these steps were

  • the ideas of la Patrie (the fatherland) and le citayen (the citizen) were emphasized;
  • a new French flag, the tricolour, was chosen to replace the former royal one
  • the Estate General was elected by the body of active citizens, and renamed the National Assembly
  • new hymns were composed, oaths taken, martyrs commemorated – all in the name of the nation;
  • a centralised administrative system was introduced;
  • a uniform system of weights and measures was adopted;
  • the French language was made the common language of the nation.

Question 3.
Who were Marianne and Germania? what was the importance of the way in which they were portrayed?
Answer:
Marianne, a female French allegory, represented the idea of a people’s nation. The artists drew characteristics from those of Liberty and the Republic. Germania became allegory of the German nation. These were portrayed as a form of nation. Marianne having the red cap, the tricolour, the cockade; Gemainne, wearing a crown of oak leaves in their statutes.

Question 4.
Briefly trace the process of German unification.
Answer:
In the wake of 1848 events, the liberal initiative, as expressed among the middle-class Germans, was pressed by the combined forces of the monarchy and the military of Prussia, thereafter the leadership of the movement for national unification passed on to Bismarck. Three wars over seven years – with Austria, Denmark and France – ended in Prussian victory completed the process of unification. In January; 1871, the Prussian king, William I, was proclaimed German emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles.

Question 5.
what changes did Napoleon introduce to make the administrative system more efficient in the territories ruled by him?
Answer:
within the wide swathe of territory that came under his control, Napoleon set about | introducing many of that reforms that he had already introduced in France. Through a return to monarchy Napoleon had, no doubt destroyed democracy in France, but in the administrative field, he had incorporated revolutionary principles in order to make the whole system more rational and efficient. The civil Code of 1804- usually known as the Napoleonic Code – did away with all privileges based on birth, established equality before the law and secured the right to property.

This Code was exported to the regions under French control In the Dutch Republic, in Switzerland, in Italy and Germany, Napoleon simplified administrative divisions, abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues. In the towns too, guild restrictions were removed Transport and communication systems were improved. Peasants, artisans, workers and new businessmen enjoyed certain freedoms: uniform laws, standardised weights and measures, and a common national currency facilitated the movement and exchange of goods.

Discuss

Question 1.
Explain what is meant by the 1848 revolution of the liberals. What were the political, social, and economic ideas supported by the liberals?
Answer:
By 1848 revolution of the liberals is meant the revolution engineered by the educated, middle- classes. This kind of revolution was underway in France, Germany, Italy, Poland, the Austrio-Hungarian empire. These revolutionaries were, by and large, liberals, seeking constitutionalism with national unification.

The political, social, and economic ideas supported by the liberals were:

  • Political: Universal male suffrage, constitutionalism, rule of Law, freedom of press, and of association, national unification.
  • Social: Social cohesion, increasing role of the middle classes, spread of education.
  • Economic: Free trade, abolition of tariff wall, abolition of bonded labour and serfdom.

Question 2.
Choose three examples to show the contribution of culture to the growth of nationalism in Europe.
Answer:
Culture played an important role in the growth of nationalism in Europe.
The three examples showing the contribution of culture can be seen in

  1. art and poetry,
  2. stories,
  3. music.

Poets (France) while criticising the glorification of reason and science focused on emotions, mystical feelings and intuition, seeking to create a sense of shared collective heritage, a common cultural past as the basis of a nation. The (German romantics, through folk songs, .poetry and dances, popularised the true spirit of the nation. The emphasis on vernacular language and the folklore carried the modern nationalist message to large audiences. This is special true in the case of Poland.

Question 3.
through a focus on any two countries, explain how nations developed over the nineteenth century.
Answer:
The success of the French revolution had provided the middle -classes, hitherto mere political subjects, with a desirable political end – the nation-state in which the liberals would play the key role, a state which would promote economic development and personal liberty.

The Vienna Congress sought to restore the ancient regime, conservative system which had made the Liberals dissatisfied. The unification of Italy as well as of Germany were achieved by conservative career diplomats – Camillo Count Cavour and Otto van Bismack – utilizing both military force, diplomacy and the present national sentiment in the population.

Strong national sentiment also existed elsewhere. However, the Ottoman, Austro-Hungarian and Russian Empires Were multinational, nation states were home to considerable national minorities (the German Empire: Poles, Danes, French; France: Bretons, Basques, Flemings; Spain Basques). The Norwegians and Finns, which enjoyed a high degree of political autonomy, in their dynastic union with Sweden. Hungry had received a large degree of political autonomy in 1867.

The Hungarian administration, ruling over a state with large Rumanian, Slovakian, Croatian, German, Ruthenian, Serbian and Czech minorities, enforced Hungarian as the only legitimate language of administration and education, a policy called Magyarization which alienated the minorities.

Question 4.
How was the history of nationalism in Britain unlike the rest of Europe?
Answer:
The history of the development of nationalism in Britain was unlike the rest of Europe. In Britain, the formation of the nation-state was not the result of a sudden upheaval or revolution It was the result of a long-drawn-out process. There was no British nation prior to the eighteenth century.

The primary identities of the people’ who inhabited the British Isles were ethnic ones – such as English, Welsh, Scot or Irish. All of these ethnic groups had their own cultural and political traditions. But as the English nation steadily grew in wealth, importance and power, it was able to extend its influence over the other nations of the islands.

The English parliament, which had seized power from the monarchy in 1688 at the end of a protracted conflict, was the instrument through which a. nation-state, with England at it centre, came to he forged. The Act of Union (1707) between England and Scotland that resulted in the formation of the ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’. Ireland was brought into the United Kingdom in 1801.

The English dominated the Scottish and the Irish. A new ‘British nation’ was forged through the propagation of a dominant English culture. The symbols of the new Britain – the British flag (Union Jack), the national anthem (God, Save Our Noble King), the English language – were actively promoted and the older nation survived only as Subordinate partners in this union.

Question 5.
Why did nationalist tensions emerge in the Balkan?
Answer:
The most serious source of nationalist tension in Europe after 1871 was the area called the Balkans. The Balkans was a region of
geographical and ethnic variation compressing modern-day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece Macedonia. Croatia, Bosnia – Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro whose inhabitants were broadly known as the Slavs. A large part of the Balkan was under the control of the Ottoman Empire.

The spread of the ideas of romantic nationalism in the Balkans together with the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire made this region very explosive. All through the nineteenth century, the Ottoman Empire had sought to strengthen itself through modernisation and internal reforms but with very little success. One by one, its European subject nationalities broke away from its control and declared independence.

The Balkan peoples based their claims for independence or political rights on nationality. As the different Slavic nationalities struggled to define their identity and independence. The Balkan area became an area of intense conflict. The Balkan slates were fiercely jealous of each other and each hoped to gain more territory at the expense of the others. Matters were further complicated because the Balkans also became the scene of big power rivalry.

During this period, there was intense rivalry among the European powers over trade and colonies as well as naval and military might. These rivalries were very evident in the way the Balkan problem unfolded. Each power – Russia, Germany, England, Austro- Hungry – was keen on countering the hold of other powers over the Balkans and extending its own control over the area. This led to a series of wars in the region and finally the First World War.

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