Class 10 History Chapter 6 Work Life and Leisure

NCERT Solutions For Class 10 History Chapter 6 Work Life and Leisure

 Write in Brief

Question 1.
Give two reasons why the population of London”expanded from the middle of the eighteenth century.
Answer:

  1. Industrialisation opened avenues for job opportunities – this led to expansion of population.
  2. Urbanisation as cause and effect of industrialisation helped the population of London grow in number.

Question 2.
What were the changes in the kind of the work available to women in London between the 19th and the 20th century? Explain the factors which led to this change.
Answer:
Technological developments forced women to leave their industrial jobs which hitherto they had been doing. The large number of children, pushed into the factories by their parents, on low-paid wages also forced women to leave their jobs in the factories. These led the women to enter into domestic domain to work as maidservants. Wartime conditions were responsible for women to work in wartime industries and leave domestic services.

Question 3.
How does the existence of a large urban population affect each of the following? Illustrate with historical examples.
(a) A private landlord.
(b) A Police Superintendent in charge of law and order.
(c) A leader of a political party.
Answer:
(a) A private landlord puts up cheap tenements for the workers working in the factories.

(b) A Police Superintendent has to maintain law and order. Usually, overcrowding leads to the committing of crimes in the Cities, as it really was the position. In 1870s, London alone had about 20000 criminals. He has to manage the situation in case of the worker’ strike.

(c) Political parties and their leaders mobilise the population in their favour-oftenly, they instigate people to launch movements and master public support.

Question 4.
Give explanations for the following:
(a) Why well-off Londoners supported the need to build housing for the poor in the nineteenth century,
(b) Why a number of Bombay films were about the lives of migrants.
(c) What led to the major expansion of Bombay’s population in the mid-nineteenth century.
Answer:
(a) The well-off Londoners supported the need to build housing for the poor in the nineteenth century for numerous reasons.
These were as : First, the vast mass’ of one-room houses occupied by the poor were seen as a serious threat to public health: they were overcrowded, badly ventilated, and lacked sanitation. Second, there were worries about fire hazards created by poor housing. Third, there was a widespread fear of social disorder, especially after the Russian Revolution in 1917. Workers’ mass housing schemes were planned to prevent the London poor from turning rebellious.

(b) Most of the people in the film industry were themselves migrants who came from cities like Lahore, Calcutta, Madras and contributed to the national character of the industry. Those who came from Lahore, then in Punjab, were especially important for the development of the Hindi film industry. Many famous writers like Ismat Chughtai and Saadat Hasan Manto, were associated with Hindi cinema.

(c) These are numerous reasons which were responsible for the expansion of Bombay’s population in the mid 19th century. With the growth of trade in cotton and opium, the traders and bankers, artisans and shopkeepers, a large number of people came to settle in Bombay during the nineteenth century.

Discuss

Question 1.
What forms of entertainment came up in nineteenth-century England to provide leisure activities for the people.
Answer:
Numerous forms of entertainment came up in the nineteenth century England. Common people had newer types of entertainment. Libraries, art galleries and museums began functioning, People, thus, came to know about their history, culture, art, and as how their ancestors lived their lives.

People, in lakhs, visited the museums, Music-halls became popular with the lower classes, cinemas and theatres were other sources of entertainment. The industrial workers used to spend their holidays by the sea enjoying the sun, An estimate is that about 10 lakh people went to sea side at Blackpool in 1883; this number went up to about 70 lakh in 1939.

Question 2.
Explain the social changes in London which led to the for the underground railway. Why was the development of the underground criticised?
Answer:
With industrialisation, the workers, in thousands could hardly find place to live. Many of them began settling in suburbs, away from their factories, while others lived and slept in the gardens nearby. Such social changes could not be allowed for long. The London underground railway solved the problems, partially for it would bring and take people to and from the place of work and the place they lived.

The development of the underground railway was criticized because numerous facilities were not available to the passengers; health care was not taken care of; there was a lot of suffocation, smoke, and those who travelled in the train began complaining. The iron monsters added to the unhealthiness of the city. For contracting railway of two miles, about 900 houses were destroyed: heaps of earth and clay made”their disposal difficult.

Question 3.
Explain what is meant by the Haussmanisation of Paris. To what extent would you support or oppose this form of development? Write a letter to the editor of a newspaper, to either support or oppose this, giving reasons for your view.
Answer:
By Haussianisation of Paris, it is meant designing Paris a new. The chief architect of the new Paris was Baron Haussmann who built the capital fresh on modern lines while beautifying the city. However, the process did mean displacement but made the city a hub of new architectural, social and intellectual development.

It gave people the employment, while it displaced many. What was wrong was that force and violence was used in the whole enterprise We can write a letter about the whole episode to the editor of a newspaper as this: New construction always brings displacement. What was done by Baron Haussmann in redesigning Paris afresh and anew is no exception.

The exercise did give jobs to many, but in the process, it displaced about 350,00 people away from the centre of Paris. The enterprise gave Paris wide and long road but made the people walk miles away to bring home eatables. The exercise made Paris a hub of activity, but the cost was the use of force and violence.

Question 4.
To what extent does government regulation and new laws solve problems of population? Discuss one example each of the success and failure of legislation to change the quality of
(a) public life
(b) private life.
Answer:
For solving the problems of pollution the governmental regulations made numerous efforts and newer laws were also made in this respect. For public life, common gardens and parks were designed; open spaces were utilized so to beautify cities: decongestion steps were taken; rent control laws were formulated.

These are some examples of solving pollution problems in Britain. For individuals, apartments were made so to enable the common poor people have shelter. And yet the benefits of all these legislations went to the rich who entered the construction industry and profited a lot.

NCERT Solutions